Introduction (Basic Concepts)¶
Mido is all about messages and ports.
Mido allows you to work with MIDI messages as Python objects. To create a new message:
>>> from mido import Message >>> msg = Message('note_on', note=60) >>> msg <message note_on channel=0 note=60 velocity=64 time=0>
Mido numbers channels 0 to 15 instead of 1 to 16. This makes them easier to work with in Python but you may want to add and subtract 1 when communicating with the user.
A list of all supported message types and their parameters can be found in Message Types.
The values can now be accessed as attributes:
>>> msg.type 'note_on' >>> msg.note 60 >>> msg.velocity 64
Attributes are also settable but this should be avoided. It’s better
>>> msg.copy(note=100, velocity=127) <message note_on channel=2 note=100 velocity=127 time=0)
Type and value checks are done when you pass parameters or assign to attributes, and the appropriate exceptions are raised. This ensures that the message is always valid.
For more about messages, see Messages.
Type and Value Checking¶
Mido messages come with type and value checking built in. This happens when you assign an out of range value to an attribute:
>>> n = mido.Message('note_on') >>> n.channel = 2092389483249829834 Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "./mido/messages.py", line 327, in __setattr__ ret = check(value) File "./mido/messages.py", line 128, in check_channel raise ValueError('channel must be in range 0..15') ValueError: channel must be in range 0..15
and when you pass some nonsense as a keyword argument to the constructor or the copy() method:
>>> n.copy(note=['This', 'is', 'wrong']) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "./mido/messages.py", line 316, in copy return Message(self.type, **args) File "./mido/messages.py", line 290, in __init__ setattr(self, name, value) File "./mido/messages.py", line 327, in __setattr__ ret = check(value) File "./mido/messages.py", line 181, in check_databyte raise TypeError('data byte must be an integer') TypeError: data byte must be an integer
This means that the message object is always a valid MIDI message.
To create an output port and send a message:
>>> outport = mido.open_output() >>> outport.send(msg)
To create an input port and receive a message:
>>> inport = mido.open_input() >>> msg = inport.receive()
Multiple threads can safely send and receive notes on the same port.
This will give you the default output and input ports. If you want to open a specific port, you will need its name. To get a list of all available input ports:
>>> mido.get_input_names() ['Midi Through Port-0', 'SH-201', 'Integra-7'] >>> inport = mido.open_input('SH-201')
All Mido ports can be used with the
with statement, which will
close the port for you:
with mido.open_input('SH-201') as inport: ...
To iterate through all incoming messages:
for msg in inport: ...
You can also receive and iterate over messages in a non-blocking way.
For more about ports, see Ports.
All Ports are Ports¶
The input and output ports used above are device ports, which communicate with a (physical or virtual) MIDI device.
Other port types include:
MultiPort, which wraps around a set of ports and allow you to send to all of them or receive from all of them as if they were one.
SocketPort, which communicates with another port over a TCP/IP (network) connection.
IOPort, which wraps around an input and an output port and allows you to send and receive messages as if the two were the same port.
Ports of all types look and behave the same way, so they can be used interchangeably.
It’s easy to write new port types. See Writing a New Port.
Virtual ports allow you to create new ports that other applications can connect to:
with mido.open_input('New Port', virtual=True) as inport: for message in inport: print(message)
The port should now appear to other applications as “New Port”.
Unfortunately virtual ports are not supported by PortMidi and Pygame so this only works with RtMidi.
Parsing MIDI Bytes¶
Mido comes with a parser that allows you to turn bytes into messages. You can create a new parser:
>>> p = mido.Parser() >>> p.feed([0x90, 0x40]) >>> p.feed_byte(0x60)
You can then fetch messages out of the parser:
>>> p.pending() 1 >>> for message in p: ... print(message) ... note_on channel=0 note=64 velocity=96 time=0
For more on parsers and parsing see Parsing MIDI Bytes.