Introduction (Basic Concepts)

Mido is all about messages and ports.

Messages

Mido allows you to work with MIDI messages as Python objects. To create a new message:

>>> from mido import Message
>>> msg = Message('note_on', note=60)
>>> msg
<message note_on channel=0 note=60 velocity=64 time=0>

Note

Mido numbers channels 0 to 15 instead of 1 to 16. This makes them easier to work with in Python but you may want to add and subtract 1 when communicating with the user.

A list of all supported message types and their parameters can be found in Message Types.

The values can now be accessed as attributes:

>>> msg.type
'note_on'
>>> msg.note
60
>>> msg.velocity
64

Attributes are also settable but this should be avoided. It’s better to use msg.copy():

>>> msg.copy(note=100, velocity=127)
<message note_on channel=2 note=100 velocity=127 time=0)

Type and value checks are done when you pass parameters or assign to attributes, and the appropriate exceptions are raised. This ensures that the message is always valid.

For more about messages, see Messages.

Type and Value Checking

Mido messages come with type and value checking built in:

>>> import mido
>>> mido.Message('note_on', channel=2092389483249829834)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/home/olemb/src/mido/mido/messages/messages.py", line 89, in __init__
    check_msgdict(msgdict)
  File "/home/olemb/src/mido/mido/messages/checks.py", line 100, in check_msgdict
    check_value(name, value)
  File "/home/olemb/src/mido/mido/messages/checks.py", line 87, in check_value
    _CHECKS[name](value)
  File "/home/olemb/src/mido/mido/messages/checks.py", line 17, in check_channel
    raise ValueError('channel must be in range 0..15')
ValueError: channel must be in range 0..15

This means that the message object is always a valid MIDI message.

Ports

To create an output port and send a message:

>>> outport = mido.open_output()
>>> outport.send(msg)

To create an input port and receive a message:

>>> inport = mido.open_input()
>>> msg = inport.receive()

Note

Multiple threads can safely send and receive notes on the same port.

This will give you the default output and input ports. If you want to open a specific port, you will need its name. To get a list of all available input ports:

>>> mido.get_input_names()
['Midi Through Port-0', 'SH-201', 'Integra-7']
>>> inport = mido.open_input('SH-201')

All Mido ports can be used with the with statement, which will close the port for you:

with mido.open_input('SH-201') as inport:
    ...

To iterate through all incoming messages:

for msg in inport:
    ...

You can also receive and iterate over messages in a non-blocking way.

For more about ports, see Ports.

All Ports are Ports

The input and output ports used above are device ports, which communicate with a (physical or virtual) MIDI device.

Other port types include:

  • MultiPort, which wraps around a set of ports and allow you to send to all of them or receive from all of them as if they were one.
  • SocketPort, which communicates with another port over a TCP/IP (network) connection.
  • IOPort, which wraps around an input and an output port and allows you to send and receive messages as if the two were the same port.

Ports of all types look and behave the same way, so they can be used interchangeably.

It’s easy to write new port types. See Writing a New Port.

Virtual Ports

Virtual ports allow you to create new ports that other applications can connect to:

with mido.open_input('New Port', virtual=True) as inport:
    for message in inport:
        print(message)

The port should now appear to other applications as “New Port”.

Unfortunately virtual ports are not supported by PortMidi and Pygame so this only works with RtMidi.

Parsing MIDI Bytes

Mido comes with a parser that allows you to turn bytes into messages. You can create a new parser:

>>> p = mido.Parser()
>>> p.feed([0x90, 0x40])
>>> p.feed_byte(0x60)

You can then fetch messages out of the parser:

>>> p.pending()
1
>>> for message in p:
...    print(message)
...
note_on channel=0 note=64 velocity=96 time=0

For more on parsers and parsing see Parsing MIDI Bytes.

You can also create a message from bytes using class methods (new in 1.2):

msg1 = mido.Message.from_bytes([0x90, 0x40, 0x60])
msg2 = mido.Message.from_hex('90, 40 60')

The bytes must contain exactly one complete message. If not ValueError is raised.

Backends

Mido comes with backends for RtMidi and PortMidi and Pygame. The default is RtMidi. You can select another backend or even use multiple backends at the same time. For more on this, see Backends.